Genetic architecture of apple and pear resistance to pests

Genetic architecture of apple and pear resistance to pests

The accurate characterization of the genetic architecture of apple and pear resistance to their main pests is useful both to identify the combinations of major genes and QTLs necessary to build durable resistance and to progress in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

For this purpose, we develop genetic mapping approaches in F1 progenies and association genetics to specify the location of resistance genes/QTLs on apple or pear chromosomes.

In apple, this approach is now greatly enriched by the monitoring of the resistant haplotypes along the pedigrees recently reconstructed over old apple varieties (Fig1). The identification of recombination points in the vicinity of the target QTLs throughout the pedigree makes it possible to specify the location or even the effect of certain QTLs, or to plan controlled crosses to better characterize them in dedicated progenies. Moreover, pedigrees allow us to predict the presence of favorable resistance alleles in genotypes that have not been mapped until now.

For some QTLs/major genes, we are trying to identify (clone) the underlying genes: this is the case for the fire blight resistance QTL FB_E of the ornamental variety Evereste, for the scab resistance QTL qT1 which colocalizes with the major R gene Rvi6, and for the major rosy apple aphid tolerance gene Dp-fl, with the goal to understand the mechanisms involved. The scab resistance QTLs qF11 and qF17, whose functions are complementary (epistasis), are also gene targets to be characterized in the near future. Thanks to the complete annotated apple genome sequence, positional and functional candidate genes are identified under the QTLs and characterized in terms of allelic diversity and expression. In connection with functional genomics studies, we are also looking for expression QTLs (eQTLs) for certain defense genes highlighted in transcriptomic studies.

In collaboration with the LAE unit of INRAE, Nancy, we now seek to identify metabolites whose variation is controlled by these scab resistance QTLs, in order to identify candidate metabolites that could be direct effectors of the observed resistance.

Furthermore, we explored the interaction between genetic and PRI-induced resistance in a mapped F1 progeny previously treated or not with the PRI ASM (acibenzolar-S-methyl) and then inoculated with scab or fire blight under controlled conditions (greenhouse). In our study, ASM modulates the expression of resistance QTLs only moderately, but the combination of both resistance sources significantly enhances the overall resistance level. In the framework of the project CapZeroPhyto, the efficacy of this combination will be evaluated in an experimental orchard (managed by the Experimental Horticultural unit of INRAE at Angers UE-Horti) planted with genotypes of different classes of presence/absence of QTLs qT1, qF11 and qF17, treated or not with ASM.

The selection pressures exerted by apple scab resistance genes/QTLs on populations of the fungus Venturia inaequalis have been the subject of strong collaborations with the EcoFun team, which is continuing its work on the potential adaptation of pathogen populations to ASM. The durability of the combination of intrinsic (genetic) and ASM-induced resistance will be studied in the above orchard still within the framework of the project CapZeroPhyto.

In collaboration with the VaDiPom team, we strongly contribute to the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of genotypes combining major genes and QTLs for resistance to these different pathogens and pests, both in apple and pear (Fig2). A major step is the identification and validation of SNP markers having a sufficiently specific association with the resistance alleles for the targeted QTLs and that correctly cover the confidence interval of each QTL. Once again, the reconstructed pedigrees and shared haplotypes are very useful on the one hand to orientate controlled crosses aiming at pyramiding a maximum of favorable alleles for the targeted QTLs (resistance, fruit quality, etc.), and on the other hand to evaluate a priori the specificity of the SNPs to efficiently identify the individuals to be selected in the created progenies.


Associated publications:

Bénéjam J., Ravon E., Gaucher M., Brisset M.N., Durel C.E., Perchepied L., 2020. Acibenzolar-S-methyl and resistance quantitative trait loci complement each other to control apple scab and fire blight. Plant Disease (on line)

Dall’Agata, M., Pagliarani, G., Padmarasu, S., Troggio, M., Bianco, L., Dapena, E., Miñarro, M., Aubourg, S., Lespinasse, Y., Durel, C.-E., Tartarini, S., 2018. Identification of candidate genes at the Dp-fl locus conferring resistance against the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea. Tree Genetics and Genomes 14, 12.

Lasserre-Zuber, P., Caffier, V., Stievenard, R., Lemarquand, A., Le Cam, B., Durel, C.-E., 2018. Pyramiding quantitative resistance with a major resistance gene in apple: from ephemeral to enduring effectiveness in controlling scab. Plant Disease 102, 2220–2223.

Van de Weg, E., Di Guardo, M., Jänsch, M., Socquet-Juglard, D., Costa, F., Baumgartner, I., Broggini, G., Kellerhals, M., Troggio, M., Laurens, F., Durel, C.-E., Patocchi, A., 2018. Epistatic fire blight resistance QTL alleles in the apple cultivar ‘Enterprise’ and selection X-6398 discovered and characterized through pedigree-informed analysis. Molecular Breeding 38, 5.

Laloi, G., Vergne, E., Durel, C.-E., Le Cam, B., Caffier, V., 2017. Efficiency of pyramiding of three quantitative resistance loci to apple scab. Plant Pathology 66, 412–422.

Pilet-Nayel, M.-L., Moury, B., Caffier, V., Montarry, J., Kerlan, M.-C., Fournet, S., Durel, C.-E., Delourme, R., 2017. Quantitative resistance to plant pathogens in pyramiding strategies for durable crop protection. Frontiers in Plant Science 8, 1838.

Caffier, V., Le Cam, B., Al Rifaï, M., Bellanger, M.-N., Comby, M., Denancé, C., Didelot, F., Expert, P., Kerdraon, T., Lemarquand, A., Ravon, E., Durel, C.-E., 2016. Slow erosion of a quantitative apple resistance to Venturia inaequalis based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44, 541–548.

Montanari, S., Perchepied, L., Renault, D., Frijters, L., Velasco, R., Horner, M., Gardiner, S.E., Chagne, D., Bus, V.G.M., Durel, C.-E., Malnoy, M., 2016. A QTL detected in an interspecific pear population confers stable fire blight resistance across different environments and genetic backgrounds. Molecular Breeding 36, 1–16.

Pagliarani, G., Dapena, E., Miñarro, M., Denancé, C., Lespinasse, Y., Rat-Morris, E., Troggio, M., Durel, C.-E., Tartarini, S., 2016. Fine mapping of the rosy apple aphid resistance locus Dp-fl on linkage group 8 of the apple cultivar ‘Florina’’.’ Tree Genetics and Genomes 12, 56.

Perchepied, L., Guérif, P., Ravon, E., Denancé, C., Laurens, F., Robert, P., Bouvier, L., Lespinasse, Y., Durel, C.-E., 2016. Polygenic inheritance of resistance to Cacopsylla pyri in a Pyrus communis x P. ussuriensis progeny is explained by three QTLs involving an epistatic interaction. Tree Genetics and Genomes 12, 1–10.

Montanari, S., Guérif, P., Ravon, E., Denancé, C., Muranty, H., Velasco, R., Chagné, D., Bus, V.G.M., Robert, P., Perchepied, L., Durel, C.-E., 2015. Genetic mapping of Cacopsylla pyri resistance in an interspecific pear (Pyrus spp.) population. Tree Genetics and Genomes 11, 14 p.

Perchepied, L., Leforestier, D., Ravon, E., Guérif, P., Denancé, C., Tellier, M., Terakami, S., Yamamoto, T., Chevalier, M., Lespinasse, Y., Durel, C.-E., 2015. Genetic mapping and pyramiding of two new pear scab resistance QTLs. Molecular Breeding 35, article n° 197.

Modification date : 20 December 2023 | Publication date : 06 September 2021 | Redactor : ResPom